Damage occurs when units come under fire and the attacker is able to defeat their protection (typically armor). There are two basic kinds of targets in the game, soft and hard, using different methods of determining damage.
Typically infantry, field guns, and machine gun emplacements. Soft targets have specific squad sizes and when they come under attack, the damage is calculated using the ammunition's soft damage ration.
Soft targets will incur casualties in the process. Depending on the type of squad, they can suffer loss of weapons (squad LMGs can typically be replaced, picked up by surviving soldiers) or ammunition. Once the unit runs out of fighting men, it's lost.
All vehicles are considered armored target and have armor ranging from paper thin to particularly thick. Damage is calculated using ammunition APDamage properties. The calculation is a lot more complex:
- APDamage shows armor penetration at point blank rang. Armor penetration for kinetic weapons generally decreases with distance to target, with APDamageRange specifying the point at which armor penetration reaches zero. If APDamageRane is set to zero, armor penetration is constant at all ranges (typically for anti-tank missiles).
- The AP formula is as follows: AP = ( (1.0 - (range/APDamageRange) )^2 ) * APDamage
Furthermore, the game considers the hit angle. Most armored vehicles have a simple face type, with a number having a more complex armor facing, which adds randomization to the hit angle.